In-memory Database

You are here:
← All Topics


The User (Bucket) Database , or UDB, was developed to complement aq_pp, allowing much more complex analyses and queries than aq_pp could do alone. It is a distributed, hash-based, in memory database. The user bucket part is derived from our work analyzing digital marketing logs, where we wish to track the behavior of users across many different log files. For other types of logs, this ‘PRIMARY KEY’ can be anything.

Each node in a cluster is responsible for a unique set of keys. When a node processes data with aq_pp, it looks up which node in the cluster maintains the data for the particular record being processed, and transports it over the network to that node.

The data for each unique key is stored using linked lists, and can be sorted on the fly if an optional sort key is provided. After processing is completed, the data for each key is available in sorted order, in memory, and can be very quickly queried.

Additionally, the database can be thought of and used as a map/reduce engine. We include an example at the end of this tutorial.

Getting Started

If you are not already in the tutorials/woodworking directory used in the previous tutorials, switch into it now. Our first step is to setup the database to store our data. As with many database systems, we need to create a database and define schemas. We concentrate first on the sales data:

$ ess create database wood
$ ess create table allsales s,pkey:userid i,tkey:ptime i:articleid f:price i:refid
$ ess create vector usersales s,pkey:userid i,+last:articleid f,+add:total

The first line defines a database called ‘wood’, and within that we create two things.


The first is a table, which is completely analagous to a TABLE in MySQL (for example). This table will store all of the sales data. The schema for this uses a variant of the column specification we saw in the Data Processing tutorial.

s,pkey:userid indicates that the first column has the label ‘userid’, that it stores string data, and will be the data we hash on. This means that the UDB will store the data in such a way that all entries for a given user are grouped together.

i,tkey:ptime will store the POSIX time as an integer. The ‘tkey’ attributed tells UDB that this column stores time data, which it can then use to sort user data in time order.

The final 3 columns are more straightforward, simply defining articles as integers and the sales price as a float.


Vectors are a bit different. For each unique hash key, there is one vector of data. This is commonly used to store summary information about a key. In this example, we want to know the total amount of money each user spent, and we want to know the last article we imported. The attributes ‘+add’ and ‘+last’ accomplish this.

There are many other attributes that can be used. For a full list, please see Attributes.

Importing data

The database servers are not running by default. We can fire them up using:

$ ess udbd start

We can now populate the ‘allsales’ table using:

$ ess stream purchase 2014-09-01 2014-09-30 \
"aq_pp -f,+1,eok - -d %cols \
-eval i:ptime 'DateToTime(purchaseDate,\"Y.m.d.H.M.S\")' \
-eval is:t 'ptime - DateToTime(\"2014-09-15\",\"Y.m.d\")' \
-if -filt 't>0' \
-eval articleID 'articleID+1' \
-endif \
-imp wood:allsales"

This is basically the same as the Data Processing example in the previous tutorial, with the addition of the -imp wood:allsales directive. As with the Data Processing tutorial, the eok means to ignore errors (but still report them). In this case, a message will be triggered for some of the data because it was designed to have corrupted fields. The messages can be used to examine bad records directly, or they can be turned off entirely using the qui attribute.

Querying the database

After executing the following, you will see a text dump of the contents of the ‘allsales’ table:

$ ess exec "aq_udb -exp wood:allsales"

Note: In ‘local’ mode, users can execute the aq_udb commands directly without using Essentia (ess exec). However, we recommend using the full command since it can be used immediately if worker nodes are added to the cluster.

You can note that the userids are output in groups, which is how UDB has stored the data. However, it is not in time order per user. Than can be done via:

$ ess exec "aq_udb -ord wood:allsales"

With the data sorted in time order, we can take advantage of our vector that summarizes each user:

$ ess exec "aq_udb -exp wood:allsales -o,notitle - | \
aq_pp -f - -d s:userid X i:articleid f:total X -imp wood:usersales"

What we’ve done is pipe the output to another UDB import command. Since the data is grouped by user and in time order per user, the ‘last article read’ will be accurately reflected. Take a look at the summary with another export:

$ ess exec "aq_udb -exp wood:usersales -sort,dec total -top 10"

Here we have added additional options to sort the output by decending total money spent, and limiting to the top 10 users.

If you wish to delete the contents of a single table/vector or the entire database you can execute:

$ ess exec "aq_udb -clr wood:usersales"
$ ess exec "aq_udb -clr wood"

Map/Reduce, Essentia Style

The intent of this section is not to teach how the Map/Reduce algorithm works, but rather demonstrate how Essentia can be used in a manner similar to it. Beginner tutorials on Map/Reduce almost always demonstrate the ‘Word Count’ problem, so it should be conceptually familiar to many. But if not, the problem is as follows: We have a large number of files containing text, and wish to count the occurrence of words in this collection of documents.

In a Hadoop implemenation of Map/Reduce, the files are moved onto the Hadoop cluster. Then a JAVA program is written to provide ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ classes. The MAP task scans a file (or part of a file) and EMITS a key-value pair of {word:1}. The key in this pair is mapped to a particular node on the cluster, meaning that any given node will be responsible for a unique set of keys. Since the data and MAP tasks are distributed across the cluster, processing will be fast.

At the end of the MAP phase, dictionaries of the form {word:[1,1,1,1]} will exist. In the REDUCE phase, each node goes through the list of keys it is responsible for and outputs a new key-value pair in the form of {word:sum}, which is the result we want.

Essentia is not dissimilar in how it would approach this problem, except we leverage common UNIX tools rather than write JAVA code to handle the task. Here is a fully worked example, using the text from the book “A Tale of Two Cities” by Charles Dickens. You will find it under tutorials/map-reduce in the git repository.

1    ess server reset
2    ess create database mapreduce
3    ess create vector wordcount s,pkey:word i,+add:count
4    ess udbd restart
5    cat pg98.txt | tr -s '[[:punct:][:space:]]' '\n' | \
6    aq_pp -d s:word -eval i:count 1 -imp mapreduce:wordcount
7    aq_udb -exp mapreduce:wordcount -sort,dec count -top 10

Since this is just a single file, we have elected to use the raw aq_pp rather than wrapping inside of an Essentia statement (stream). The first line cleans out any old schemas (if they existed). The next 2 lines simply setup the schema, with the vector really acting as an on-the-fly ‘REDUCER’. We then restart the UDB to wipe out any previous content from earlier tutorials.

At this point UDB is ready to accept input. We use a very common UNIX tool tr to tokenize input data based on spaces or punctuation, and then pipe it to aq_pp which emits a {word:1} to UDB.

The vector takes care of counting the occurrence of each word on the fly. Finally, we use aq_udb to output the top 10 most common words.

Advantages over HADOOP

For certain applications, Essentia can be much faster than Hadoop when a map/reduce algorithm is called for. In particular:

  1. Data can be dealt with in its raw form. No need to move it onto the Hadoop filesystem.
  2. Fast. Because it is in-memory, Essentia can perform some operations much more quickly.
  3. Low dev time. No need for lengthy JAVA code.

Altogether, a user can go from raw data to results much more quickly using Essentia for many applications where Hadoop would normally be used.